Kinase domain-targeted isolation of defense-related receptor-like kinases (RLK/Pelle) in Platanus × acerifolia: phylogenetic and structural analysis

Immagine di anteprima
Pilotti, Massimo
Brunetti, Angela
Uva, Paolo
Lumia, Valentina
Tizzani, Lorenza
Gervasi, Fabio
Iacono, MIchele
Pindo, Massimo
Titolo del periodico
Titolo del volume
BioMed Central
Background: Plant receptor-like kinase (RLK/Pelle) family regulates growth and developmental processes and interaction with pathogens and symbionts. Platanaceae is one of the earliest branches of Eudicots temporally located before the split which gave rise to Rosids and Asterids. Thus investigations into the RLK family in Platanus can provide information on the evolution of this gene family in the land plants. Moreover RLKs are good candidates for finding genes that are able to confer resistance to Platanus pathogens. Results: Degenerate oligonucleotide primers targeting the kinase domain of stress-related RLKs were used to isolate for the first time 111 RLK gene fragments in Platanus × acerifolia. Sequences were classified as candidates of the following subfamilies: CrRLK1L, LRR XII, WAK-like, and LRR X-BRI1 group. All the structural features typical of the RLK kinase domain were identified, including the non-RD motif which marks potential pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). The LRR XII candidates, whose counterpart in Arabidopsis and rice comprises non-RD PRRs, were mostly non-RD kinases, suggesting a group of PRRs. Region-specific signatures of a relaxed purifying selection in the LRR XII candidates were also found, which is novel for plant RLK kinase domain and further supports the role of LRR XII candidates as PRRs. As we obtained CrRLK1L candidates using primers designed on Pto of tomato, we analysed the phylogenetic relationship between CrRLK1L and Pto-like of plant species. We thus classified all non-solanaceous Pto-like genes as CrRLK1L and highlighted for the first time the close phylogenetic vicinity between CrRLK1L and Pto group. The origins of Pto from CrRLK1L is proposed as an evolutionary mechanism. Conclusions: The signatures of relaxed purifying selection highlight that a group of RLKs might have been involved in the expression of phenotypic plasticity and is thus a good candidate for investigations into pathogen resistance. Search of Pto-like genes in Platanus highlighted the close relationship between CrRLK1L and Pto group. It will be exciting to verify if sensu strictu Pto are present in taxonomic groups other than Solanaceae, in order to further clarify the evolutionary link with CrRLK1L. We obtained a first valuable resource useful for an in-depth study on stress perception systems.
Platanus × acerifolia , RLK/Pelle , Pto-like , CrRLK1L , LRR XII , WAK-like , LRR X-BRI1 , relaxed purifying selection , pathogen resistance